Production of the radioactive isotopes (along N = Z, n-rich isotopes, VHE and SHE)

Optimal beam/target reaction channels, cross sections, expected secondary beam intensities

GSI  -  Research Program of the Reaction Mechanisms Group
ISOLDE Yield Database




Which nuclei (elements) should have priority for the studies (proposals, LOI’s, ongoing plans)?

Use of long-lived radioactive sources (cf. Fm study, actinides)


Target preparation


Option with pre-separator

MARA (Mass Analysing Recoil Apparatus) — Fysiikan laitos



Option without pre-separator

Total energy deposited in the gas cell / charge creation in the gas cell


Dual gas cell


Gas cell: I) collection on a filament, II) with exit hole

Stopping of atoms, diffusion losses and flow simulations: which programs are validated?

Gas type/pressure/purity

Chemistry (atom, ion and molecular): irradiation with UV light to dissociate the molecules(?), in-jet dissociation

  • Y. Nagano et al.
    "Laser photoelectron spectroscopic determination of electronic states of Fe atoms produced in multiphoton dissociation of Fe(Co)5 in the gas phase"
    J. Chem. Phys. 84 (1986) 1063-1070
  • J.A. Horsley et al.
    "Laser Chemistry Experiments with UF6"
    IEEE Journal of quantum electronics, vol. QE-16, 4 (1980), 412-419
  • D.P. Gerrity, L.J. Rothberg and V. Vaida
    "Multiphoton ionization of metal atoms produced in the photodissociation of group VI hexacarbonyls"
    Chemical Physics Lett. 74 (1980) 1-5
  • P. Kolodner, C. Winterfeld and E. Yablonovitch
    "Molecular dissociation of SF6 by ultra-short CO2 laser pulses"
    Opt. Comm. 20 (1976) 119-122

Optimization the gas cell configuration for stopping, fast evacuation and limited losses / gas-flow simulations


Gas jet formation


Differential pumping


Pumping speed


RF ion guide

Configuration (bend)


Space charge limitations

  • P. Karvonen, I.D. Moore, T. Sonoda et al.
    "A sextupole ion beam guide to improve the efficiency and beam quality at IGISOL"
    Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 266 (2008) 4794-4807



Laser Control System For Radioactive Beams



Spectral properties: range and band width


Laser cooling


Laser ion source


Resonant ionization spectroscopy


Two subsequent strategies

in-gas cell: broad scans (power and pressure broadening)


in-gas jet: high-resolution spectroscopy


High-resolution laser spectroscopy using weak transition to long-lived excited states


Optimal geometrical approaches for high-resolution laser ionization spectroscopy in the gas jet


N-type multiphoton Raman resonance


Isotope shift



TOF mass analyzer: multi reflecting (intensity limit?)




β-γ spectroscopy


Analysis of laser ionization spectroscopy data